The text is from my copy of Emma Goldman's Anarchism and Other Essays. Second Revised Edition. New York & London: Mother
Earth Publishing Association, 1911. pp. 183-200.
THE TRAFFIC IN WOMEN
OUR REFORMERS have suddenly made a great discovery--the white slave traffic. The papers
are full of these "unheard-of conditions," and lawmakers are already planning a new set of laws to check the horror.
It is significant that whenever the public mind is to be diverted from a great social wrong,
a crusade is inaugurated against indecency, gambling, saloons, etc. And what is the result of such crusades? Gambling is increasing,
saloons are doing a lively business through back entrances, prostitution is at its height, and the system of pimps and cadets
is but aggravated.
How is it that an institution, known almost to every child, should have been discovered
so suddenly? How is it that this evil, known to all sociologists, should now be made such an important issue?
To assume that the recent investigation of the white slave traffic (and, by the way, a very
superficial investigation) has discovered anything new, is, to say the least, very foolish. Prostitution has been, and is,
a widespread evil, yet mankind goes on its business, perfectly indifferent to the sufferings and distress of the victims of
prostitution. As indifferent, indeed, as mankind has remained to our industrial system, or to economic prostitution.
Only when human sorrows are turned into a toy with glaring colors will baby people become
interested --for a while at least. The people are a very fickle baby that must have new toys every day. The "righteous" cry
against the white slave traffic is such a toy. It serves to amuse the people for a little while, and it will help to create
a few more fat political jobs--parasites who stalk about the world as inspectors, investigators, detectives, and so forth.
What is really the cause of the trade in women? Not merely white women, but yellow and black
women as well. Exploitation, of course; the merciless Moloch of capitalism that fattens on underpaid labor, thus driving thousands
of women and girls into prostitution. With Mrs. Warren these girls feel, "Why waste your life working for a few shillings
a week in a scullery, eighteen hours a day?"
Naturally our reformers say nothing about this cause. They know it well enough, but it doesn't
pay to say anything about it. It is much more profitable to play the Pharisee, to pretend an outraged morality, than to go
to the bottom of things.
However, there is one commendable exception among the young writers: Reginald Wright Kauffman,
whose work The House of Bondage is the first earnest attempt to treat the social evil--not from a sentimental
Philistine viewpoint. A journalist of wide experience, Mr. Kauffman proves that our industrial system leaves most women no
alternative except prostitution. The women portrayed in The House of Bondage belong to the working class. Had
the author portrayed the life of women in other spheres, he would have been confronted with the same state of affairs.
Nowhere is woman treated according to the merit of her work, but rather as a sex. It is
therefore almost inevitable that she should pay for her right to exist, to keep a position in whatever line, with sex favors.
Thus it is merely a question of degree whether she sells herself to one man, in or out of marriage, or to many men. Whether
our reformers admit it or not, the economic and social inferiority of woman is responsible for prostitution.
Just at present our good people are shocked by the disclosures that in New York City alone
one out of every ten women works in a factory, that the average wage received by women is six dollars per week for forty-eight
to sixty hours of work, and that the majority of female wage workers face many months of idleness which leaves the average
wage about $280 a year. In view of these economic horrors, is it to be wondered at that prostitution and the white slave trade
have become such dominant factors?
Lest the preceding figures be considered an exaggeration, it is well to examine what some
authorities on prostitution have to say:
"A prolific cause of female depravity can be found in the several tables, showing the description
of the employment pursued, and the wages received, by the women previous to their fall, and it will be a question for the
political economist to decide how far mere business consideration should be an apology --on the part of employers for a reduction
in their rates of remuneration, and whether the savings of a small percentage on wages is not more than counterbalanced by
the enormous amount of taxation enforced on the public at large to defray the expenses incurred on account of a system of
vice, which is the direct result, in many cases, of insufficient compensation of honest labor."1
Our present-day reformers would do well to look into Dr. Sanger's book. There they will
find that out of 2,000 cases under his observation, but few came from the middle classes, from well-ordered conditions, or
pleasant homes. By far the largest majority were working girls and working women; some driven into prostitution through sheer
want, others because of a cruel, wretched life at home, others again because of thwarted and crippled physical natures (of
which I shall speak later on). Also it will do the maintainers of purity and morality good to learn that out of two thousand
cases, 490 were married women, women who lived with their husbands. Evidently there was not much of a guaranty for their "safety
and purity" in the sanctity of marriage.2
Dr. Alfred Blaschko, in Prostitution in the Nineteenth Century, is even more emphatic
in characterizing economic conditions as one of the most vital factors of prostitution.
"Although prostitution has existed in all ages, it was left to the nineteenth century to
develop it into a gigantic social institution. The development of industry with vast masses of people in the competitive market,
the growth and congestion of large cities, the insecurity and uncertainty of employment, has given prostitution an impetus
never dreamed of at any period in human history."
And again Havelock Ellis, while not so absolute in dealing with the economic cause, is nevertheless
compelled to admit that it is indirectly and directly the main cause. Thus he finds that a large percentage of prostitutes
is recruited from the servant class, although the latter have less care and greater security. On the other hand, Mr. Ellis
does not deny that the daily routine, the drudgery, the monotony of the servant girl's lot, and especially the fact that she
may never partake of the companionship and joy of a home, is no mean factor in forcing her to seek recreation and forgetfulness
in the gaiety and glimmer of prostitution. In other words, the servant girl, being treated as a drudge, never having the right
to herself, and worn out by the caprices of her mistress, can find an outlet, like the factory or shopgirl, only in prostitution.
The most amusing side of the question now before the public is the indignation of our "good,
respectable people," especially the various Christian gentlemen, who are always to be found in the front ranks of every crusade.
Is it that they are absolutely ignorant of the history of religion, and especially of the Christian religion? Or is it that
they hope to blind the present generation to the part played in the past by the Church in relation to prostitution? Whatever
their reason, they should be the last to cry out against the unfortunate victims of today, since it is known to every intelligent
student that prostitution is of religious origin, maintained and fostered for many centuries, not as a shame, but as a virtue,
hailed as such by the Gods themselves.
"It would seem that the origin of prostitution is to be found primarily in a religious custom,
religion, the great conserver of social tradition, preserving in a transformed shape a primitive freedom that was passing
out of the general social life. The typical example is that recorded by Herodotus, in the fifth century before Christ, at
the Temple of Mylitta, the Babylonian Venus, where every woman, once in her life, had to come and give herself to the first
stranger, who threw a coin in her lap, to worship the goddess. Very similar customs existed in other parts of western Asia,
in North Africa, in Cyprus, and other islands of the eastern Mediterranean, and also in Greece, where the temple of Aphrodite
on the fort at Corinth possessed over a thousand hierodules, dedicated to the service of the goddess.
"The theory that religious prostitution developed, as a general rule, out of the belief
that the generative activity of human beings possessed a mysterious and sacred influence in promoting the fertility of Nature,
is maintained by all authoritative writers on the subject. Gradually, however, and when prostitution became an organized institution
under priestly influence, religious prostitution developed utilitarian sides, thus helping to increase public revenue.
"The rise of Christianity to political power produced little change in policy. The leading
fathers of the Church tolerated prostitution. Brothels under municipal protection are found in the thirteenth century. They
constituted a sort of public service, the directors of them being considered almost as public servants."3
To this must be added the following from Dr. Sanger's work:
"Pope Clement II. issued a bull that prostitutes would be tolerated if they pay a certain
amount of their earnings to the Church.
"Pope Sixtus IV. was more practical; from one single brothel, which he himself had built,
he received an income of 20,000 ducats."
In modern times the Church is a little more careful in that direction. At least she does
not openly demand tribute from prostitutes. She finds it much more profitable to go in for real estate, like Trinity Church,
for instance, to rent out death traps at an exorbitant price to those who live off and by prostitution.
Much as I should like to, my space will not admit speaking of prostitution in Egypt, Greece,
Rome, and during the Middle Ages. The conditions in the latter period are particularly interesting, inasmuch as prostitution
was organized into guilds, presided over by a brothel queen. These guilds employed strikes as a medium of improving their
condition and keeping a standard price. Certainly that is more practical a method than the one used by the modern wage-slave
It would be one-sided and extremely superficial to maintain that the economic factor is
the only cause of prostitution. There are others no less important and vital. That, too, our reformers know, but dare discuss
even less than the institution that saps the very life out of both men and women. I refer to the sex question, the very mention
of which causes most people moral spasms.
It is a conceded fact that woman is being reared as a sex commodity, and yet she is kept
in absolute ignorance of the meaning and importance of sex. Everything dealing with that subject is suppressed, and persons
who attempt to bring light into this terrible darkness are persecuted and thrown into prison. Yet it is nevertheless true
that so long as a girl is not to know how to take care of herself, not to know the function of the most important part of
her life, we need not be surprised if she becomes an easy prey to prostitution, or to any other form of a relationship which
degrades her to the position of an object for mere sex gratification.
It is due to this ignorance that the entire life and nature of the girl is thwarted and
crippled. We have long ago taken it as a self-evident fact that the boy may follow the call of the wild; that is to say, that
the boy may, as soon as his sex nature asserts itself, satisfy that nature; but our moralists are scandalized at the very
thought that the nature of a girl should assert itself. To the moralist prostitution does not consist so much in the fact
that the woman sells her body, but rather that she sells it out of wedlock. That this is no mere statement is proved by the
fact that marriage for monetary considerations is perfectly legitimate, sanctified by law and public opinion, while any other
union is condemned and repudiated. Yet a prostitute, if properly defined, means nothing else than "any person for whom sexual
relationships are subordinated to gain."4
"Those women are prostitutes who sell their bodies for the exercise of the sexual act and
make of this a profession."5
In fact, Banger goes further; he maintains that the act of prostitution is "intrinsically
equal to that of a man or woman who contracts a marriage for economic reasons."
Of course, marriage is the goal of every girl, but as thousands of girls cannot marry, our
stupid social customs condemn them either to a life of celibacy or prostitution. Human nature asserts itself regardless of
all laws, nor is there any plausible reason why nature should adapt itself to a perverted conception of morality.
Society considers the sex experiences of a man as attributes of his general development,
while similar experiences in the life of a woman are looked upon as a terrible calamity, a loss of honor and of all that is
good and noble in a human being. This double standard of morality has played no little part in the creation and perpetuation
of prostitution. It involves the keeping of the young in absolute ignorance on sex matters, which alleged "innocence," together
with an overwrought and stifled sex nature, helps to bring about a state of affairs that our Puritans are so anxious to avoid
Not that the gratification of sex must needs lead to prostitution; it is the cruel, heartless,
criminal persecution of those who dare divert from the beaten track, which is responsible for it.
Girls, mere children, work in crowded, over-heated rooms ten to twelve hours daily at a
machine, which tends to keep them in a constant over-excited sex state. Many of these girls have no home or comforts of any
kind; therefore the street or some place of cheap amusement is the only means of forgetting their daily routine. This naturally
brings them into close proximity with the other sex. It is hard to say which of the two factors brings the girl's over-sexed
condition to a climax, but it is certainly the most natural thing that a climax should result. That is the first step toward
prostitution. Nor is the girl to be held responsible for it. On the contrary, it is altogether the fault of society, the fault
of our lack of understanding, of our lack of appreciation of life in the making; especially is it the criminal fault of our
moralists, who condemn a girl for all eternity, because she has gone from the "path of virtue"; that is, because her first
sex experience has taken place with out the sanction of the Church.
The girl feels herself a complete outcast, with the doors of home and society closed in
her face. Her entire training and tradition is such that the girl herself feels depraved and fallen, and therefore has no
ground to stand upon, or any hold that will lift her up, instead of dragging her down. Thus society creates the victims that
it afterwards vainly attempts to get rid of. The meanest, most depraved and decrepit man still considers himself too good
to take as his wife the woman whose grace he was quite willing to buy, even though he might thereby save her from a life of
horror. Nor can she turn to her own sister for help. In her stupidity the latter deems herself too pure and chaste, not realizing
that her own position is in many respects even more deplorable than her sister's of the street.
"The wife who married for money, compared with the prostitute," says Havelock Ellis, "is
the true scab. She is paid less, gives much more in return in labor and care, and is absolutely bound to her master. The prostitute
never signs away the right over her own person, she retains her freedom and personal rights, nor is she always compelled to
submit to man's embrace."
Nor does the better-than-thou woman realize the apologist claim of Lecky that "though she
may be the supreme type of vice, she is also the most efficient guardian of virtue. But for her, happy homes would be polluted,
unnatural and harmful practice would abound."
Moralists are ever ready to sacrifice one-half of the human race for the sake of some miserable
institution which they can not outgrow. As a matter of fact, prostitution is no more a safeguard for the purity of the home
than rigid laws are a safeguard against prostitution. Fully fifty per cent. of married men are patrons of brothels. It is
through this virtuous element that the married women--nay, even the children--are infected with venereal diseases. Yet society
has not a word of condemnation for the man, while no law is too monstrous to be set in motion against the helpless victim.
She is not only preyed upon by those who use her, but she is also absolutely at the mercy of every policeman and miserable
detective on the beat, the officials at the station house, the authorities in every prison.
In a recent book by a woman who was for twelve years the mistress of a "house," are to be
found the following figures: "The authorities compelled me to pay every month fines between $14.70 to $29.70, the girls would
pay from $5.70 to $9.70 to the police." Considering that the writer did her business in a small city, that the amounts she
gives do not include extra bribes and fines, one can readily see the tremendous revenue the police department derives from
the blood money of its victims, whom it will not even protect. Woe to those who refuse to pay their toll; they would be rounded
up like cattle, "if only to make a favorable impression upon the good citizens of the city, or if the powers needed extra
money on the side. For the warped mind who believes that a fallen woman is incapable of human emotion it would be impossible
to realize the grief, the disgrace, the tears, the wounded pride that was ours every time we were pulled in."
Strange, isn't it, that a woman who has kept a "house" should be able to feel that way?
But stranger still that a good Christian world should bleed and fleece such women, and give them nothing in return except
obloquy and persecution. Oh, for the charity of a Christian world!
Much stress is laid on white slaves being imported into America. How would America ever
retain her virtue if Europe did not help her out? I will not deny that this may be the case in some instances, any more than
I will deny that there are emissaries of Germany and other countries luring economic slaves into America; but I absolutely
deny that prostitution is recruited to any appreciable extent from Europe. It may be true that the majority of prostitutes
of New York City are foreigners, but that is because the majority of the population is foreign. The moment we go to any other
American city, to Chicago or the Middle West, we shall find that the number of foreign prostitutes is by far a minority.
Equally exaggerated is the belief that the majority of street girls in this city were engaged
in this business before they came to America. Most of the girls speak excellent English, are Americanized in habits and appearance,--a
thing absolutely impossible unless they had lived in this country many years. That is, they were driven into prostitution
by American conditions, by the thoroughly American custom for excessive display of finery and clothes, which, of course, necessitates
money,--money that cannot be earned in shops or factories.
In other words, there is no reason to believe that any set of men would go to the risk and
expense of getting foreign products, when American conditions are overflooding the market with thousands of girls. On the
other hand, there is sufficient evidence to prove that the export of American girls for the purpose of prostitution is by
no means a small factor.
Thus Clifford G. Roe, ex-Assistant State Attorney of Cook County, Ill., makes the open charge
that New England girls are shipped to Panama for the express use of men in the employ of Uncle Sam. Mr. Roe adds that "there
seems to be an underground railroad between Boston and Washington which many girls travel." Is it not significant that the
railroad should lead to the very seat of Federal authority? That Mr: Roe said more than was desired in certain quarters is
proved by the fact that he lost his position. It is not practical for men in office to tell tales from school.
The excuse given for the conditions in Panama is that there are no brothels in the Canal
Zone. That is the usual avenue of escape for a hypocritical world that dares not face the truth. Not in the Canal Zone, not
in the city limits,--therefore prostitution does not exist.
Next to Mr. Roe, there is James Bronson Reynolds, who has made a thorough study of the white
slave traffic in Asia. As a staunch American citizen and friend of the future Napoleon of America, Theodore Roosevelt, he
is surely the last to discredit the virtue of his country. Yet we are informed by him that in Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Yokohama,
the Augean stables of American vice are located. There American prostitutes have made themselves so conspicuous that in the
Orient "American girl" is synonymous with prostitute. Mr. Reynolds reminds his countrymen that while Americans in China are
under the protection of our consular representatives, the Chinese in America have no protection at all. Every one who knows
the brutal and barbarous persecution Chinese and Japanese endure on the Pacific Coast, will agree with Mr. Reynolds.
In view of the above facts it is rather absurd to point to Europe as the swamp whence come
all the social diseases of America. Just as absurd is it to proclaim the myth that the Jews furnish the largest contingent
of willing prey. I am sure that no one will accuse me of nationalistic tendencies. I am glad to say that I have developed
out of them, as out of many other prejudices. If, therefore, I resent the statement that Jewish prostitutes are imported,
it is not because of any Judaistic sympathies, but because of the facts inherent in the lives of these people. No one but
the most superficial will claim that Jewish girls migrate to strange lands, unless they have some tie or relation that brings
them there. The Jewish girl is not adventurous. Until recent years she had never left home, not even so far as the next village
or town, except it were to visit some relative. Is it then credible that Jewish girls would leave their parents or families,
travel thousands of miles to strange lands, through the influence and promises of strange forces? Go to any of the large incoming
steamers and see for yourself if these girls do not come either with their parents, brothers, aunts, or other kinsfolk. There
may be exceptions, of course, but to state that large numbers of Jewish girls are imported for prostitution, or any other
purpose, is simply not to know Jewish psychology.
Those who sit in a glass house do wrong to throw stones about them; besides, the American
glass house is rather thin, it will break easily, and the interior is anything but a gainly sight.
To ascribe the increase of prostitution to alleged importation, to the growth of the cadet
system, or similar causes, is highly superficial. I have already referred to the former. As to the cadet system, abhorrent
as it is, we must not ignore the fact that it is essentially a phase of modern prostitution,--a phase accentuated by suppression
and graft, resulting from sporadic crusades against the social evil.
The procurer is no doubt a poor specimen of the human family, but in what manner is he more
despicable than the policeman who takes the last cent from the street walker, and then locks her up in the station house?
Why is the cadet more criminal, or a greater menace to society, than the owners of department stores and factories, who grow
fat on the sweat of their victims, only to drive them to the streets? I make no plea for the cadet, but I fail to see why
he should be mercilessly hounded, while the real perpetrators of all social iniquity enjoy immunity and respect. Then, too,
it is well to remember that it is not the cadet who makes the prostitute. It is our sham and hypocrisy that create both the
prostitute and the cadet.
Until 1894 very little was known in America of the procurer. Then we were attacked by an
epidemic of virtue. Vice was to be abolished, the country purified at all cost. The social cancer was therefore driven out
of sight, but deeper into the body. Keepers of brothels, as well as their unfortunate victims, were turned over to the tender
mercies of the police. The inevitable consequence of exorbitant bribes, and the penitentiary, followed.
While comparatively protected in the brothels, where they represented a certain monetary
value, the girls now found themselves on the street, absolutely at the mercy of the graft-greedy police. Desperate, needing
protection and longing for affection, these girls naturally proved an easy prey for cadets, themselves the result of the spirit
of our commercial age. Thus the cadet system was the direct outgrowth of police persecution, graft, and attempted suppression
of prostitution. It were sheer folly to confound this modern phase of the social evil with the causes of the latter.
Mere suppression and barbaric enactments can serve but to embitter, and further degrade,
the unfortunate victims of ignorance and stupidity. The latter has reached its highest expression in the proposed law to make
humane treatment of prostitutes a crime, punishing any one sheltering a prostitute with five years' imprisonment and $1O,000
fine. Such an attitude merely exposes the terrible lack of understanding of the true causes of prostitution, as a social factor,
as well as manifesting the Puritanic spirit of the Scarlet Letter days.
There is not a single modern writer on the subject who does not refer to the utter futility
of legislative methods in coping with the issue. Thus Dr. Blaschko finds that governmental suppression and moral crusades
accomplish nothing save driving the evil into secret channels, multiplying its dangers to society. Havelock Ellis, the most
thorough and humane student of prostitution, proves by a wealth of data that the more stringent the methods of persecution
the worse the condition becomes. Among other data we learn that in France, "in 1560, Charles IX. abolished brothels through
an edict, but the numbers of prostitutes were only increased, while many new brothels appeared in unsuspected shapes, and
were more dangerous. In spite of all such legislation, or because of it, there has been no country in which prostitution
has played a more conspicuous part."6
An educated public opinion, freed from the legal and moral hounding of the prostitute, can
alone help to ameliorate present conditions. Wilful shutting of eyes and ignoring of the evil as a social factor of modern
life, can but aggravate matters. We must rise above our foolish notions of "better than thou," and learn to recognize in the
prostitute a product of social conditions. Such a realization will sweep away the attitude of hypocrisy, and insure a greater
understanding and more humane treatment. As to a thorough eradication of prostitution, nothing can accomplish that save a
complete transvaluation of all accepted values especially the moral ones--coupled with the abolition of industrial slavery.
Dr. Sanger, The History of Prostitution
It is a significant fact that Dr. Sanger's book has been excluded
from the U. S. mails. Evidently the authorities are not anxious that the public be informed as to the true cause of prostitution.3
Ellis, Sex and Society: 4
Guyot, La Prostitution
Bangert Criminalité et Condition Economique
.6Sex and Society